All about IBS and the causes you may not know about


3 minutes

29 May 2024

IBS Symptoms and Management
This article was originally published on but has since been revised with new information.

Around 1 in 5 Australianswill experience the unpleasant symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) at some time in their lives.

But how do you tell the difference between once-off stomach upset and IBS? When should you seek help? And what treatments are available?

Anyone who has suffered irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) knows how uncomfortable it can be. Symptoms can include diarrhoea, constipation, cramping, and bloating, and often show up all at the same time.

While it can be worse for some than others, IBS is considered a chronic condition that must be managed long-term. Doctor of philosophy, food science and human nutrition, Dr Vincent Candrawinata reveals some IBS facts you may not know about.

In this article:

Who does IBS affect?

This condition affects up to 5-10% of individuals worldwide and it can affect children and adults of both genders.2

There are other risk factors too.

“If you have family member(s) with IBS, you are more likely to suffer from it. A severe infection, especially in the gut and digestive tract during childhood, can also increase the risk of developing IBS,” says Dr Vincent Candrawinata3.

Different types of IBS

Irritable bowel syndrome can present in three different ways4:

  1. Constipation-predominant. Alternating bouts of constipation with normal stools.
  2. Diarrhoea-predominant. Frequent loose stools with an urgency to go to the toilet, and potential incontinence issues.
  3. Alternating constipation and diarrhoea. Both of the above can come and go.

What are the causes of IBS that we know of?

There are many causes of IBS. Common triggers include4:

  • Emotional stress
  • Infection such as an episode of gastro
  • Food intolerance/diet
  • Medications such as antibiotics, antacids, and painkillers
  • Regulation between the brain and the gut malfunctioning

What are the signs and symptoms of IBS?

Signs and symptoms of IBS include5:

  • Cramping
  • Abdominal pain, often relieved by passing wind or faeces
  • Bloating and abdominal distension
  • Gas
  • Chronic diarrhoea or constipation, or both
  • A feeling of incomplete bowel movement

“Symptoms such as stomach cramps, bloating, diarrhoea, and constipation are not only physically straining but can also affect someone’s social life and daily routine,” says Dr Candrawinata.

“While most cases of IBS are mild to moderate, there is about 20 per cent of cases that are considered severe. Unlike an everyday tummy ache, which goes away within a day or two, IBS can last a few weeks or even months.”

When should you seek help and how?

If you have concerns about your symptoms, it’s a good idea to consult your GP who can determine if you need to be referred to a specialist or not.

“There’s no test to diagnose IBS but specialist doctors, called gastroenterologists, use specific criteria to identify the disorder and rule out other conditions,” says Dr Candrawinata.

See your doctor if:5

  • Your symptoms are chronic or ongoing
  • You notice blood in your stools
  • You have a fever or severe diarrhea
  • You experience unexplained or unintentional weight loss

What does managing IBS look like?

There is no permanent fix for IBS. However, a range of treatment options can help manage flare-ups and alleviate symptoms.

Self-management treatments include:5

  • Avoiding trigger foods. Working with a health professional, like a dietitian, to make some changes to your diet to help avoid foods that trigger symptoms and ensure you are maintaining a balanced diet.
  • Eating a balanced diet. Eliminate foods that trigger your symptoms and avoid heavily processed foods and fried foods that can cause inflammation in the body.
  • Maintaining a routine. Eat at regular times to help your system regulate the gut and digestive functions. Don't skip meals or drastically change your diet.
  • Exercise. Getting active helps our circulation and regulates our bodily functions including our digestive system.
  • Talking to health professionals. A psychologist can offer you strategies for dealing with negative thoughts.

Medical treatment options include:1

  • Antidiarrhoea medication
  • Laxatives for constipation
  • Antispasmodic drugs, which may ease cramping

Send tummy troubles travelling

If you’re experiencing symptoms of IBS, remember that help is available. Talk to your GP and check on your level of hospital cover. You could be covered for:.

  • Digestive System. Includes hospital treatment for the investigation and treatment of the digestive system, including the oesophagus, stomach, gall bladder, pancreas, spleen, liver and bowel. For example: oesophageal cancer, irritable bowel syndrome, gall stones and haemorrhoids.
  • Gastrointestinal endoscopy. Includes hospital treatment for the diagnosis, investigation, and treatment of the internal parts of the gastrointestinal system using an endoscope. For example: colonoscopy, gastroscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).
  • If you’re an HBF member, you can check what you're covered for by logging on to myHBF or calling us on 133 423.

    You can also choose or ask to be referred to a ‘Full Cover’ Gastroenterologist, find a provider here. 

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  1. 1Better Health Channel – Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  2. 2About IBS – What is IBS?
  3. 3Ask Vincent –Dr Vincent Candrawinata
  4. 4Better Health Channel–Treatments for IBS
  5. 5Health Direct – IBS Key Facts


This article contains general information only and does not take into account the health, personal situation or needs of any person. In conjunction with your GP or treating health care professional, please consider whether the information is suitable for you and your personal circumstances.